Get on rail for savings on freight: CSIRO

Australia’s national science agency conducted a pilot study in 2018 using its computer logistics tool TraNSIT (Transport Network Strategic Investment Tool), along with extensive industry engagement, to focus on Parkes to Narromine in Central West NSW.
Researchers identified a baseline of existing freight movements in this area to estimate the potential transport cost savings for the entire Inland Rail project, marking the first time such a detailed analysis on road to rail supply chains in Australia has been completed.
They considered horticulture and processed agriculture such as meat, rice and dairy products.
The analysis showed if existing agricultural road trips were shifted to Inland Rail, the agricultural industry could save between $64 to $94 per tonne (depending on back-loading).
This equates to about $70 million in reduced transport costs per year based on the shift of 923,000 tonnes of horticultural and processed agriculture to the lower cost transport option that Inland Rail provides.
Additional analysis revealed that if existing coastal rail trips shifted to inland rail, this would result in an estimated saving of $28 to $35 per tonne.
“Our research has shown that Inland Rail would bring an improvement in rail travel time and transport cost, particularly important when considering perishable products.
This would make it a lot more competitive with the travel time advantages of road transport,” CSIRO TraNSIT leader Dr Andrew Higgins said.
Parkes to Narromine was chosen for the case study as it is the first section of track to undergo construction. There’s also a large number of supply chains in this pilot area involving hundreds of stakeholders.
“A big cost in food production is transport, particularly given the large distribution of where and when it is grown across Australia, and the long distances to major domestic markets, often over 1000 kilometres,” Dr Higgins said.
“These type of savings with Inland Rail would mean food companies would have lower cost access to markets further away than they supplied to in the past.
“The benefit is for those selling to market, basically large farming corporations, food companies and those behind processing facilities.
“You’d expect the savings would then be passed back onto farmers.”
The Australian Government has committed $9.3 billion to complete the 1,700 kilometre spine of Australia’s freight rail network that will connect Melbourne to Brisbane in under 24 hours.
As a next step, TraNSIT will now be applied to the broader Inland Rail corridor (commencing with the southern corridor from Narromine to Seymour) to obtain even more detailed cost savings across a broader range of commodities.
New commodities will include grains, cotton, livestock, wool, minerals and general freight.
TraNSIT has been used in previous research to test the benefits of transport infrastructure in regard to upgrading roads in Northern Australia, and calculating agriculture and forestry transport benefits for industry and various levels of government.
The TraNSIT computer modelling tool works by analysing every possible combination of transport routes and modes (road and rail) and determining those that optimise vehicle movements between enterprises in the agriculture supply chain.
 

CSIRO Blockchain to help your purchasing

CSIRO’s Data61 has formed a consortium with law firm Herbert Smith Freehills and IBM to build Australia’s first cross-industry, large-scale, digital platform to enable Australian businesses to collaborate using blockchain-based smart legal contracts.
Known as the Australian National Blockchain (ANB), the new platform has the potential to represent a significant new piece of infrastructure in Australia’s digital economy, enabling companies nationwide to join the network to use digitised contracts, exchange data and confirm the authenticity and status of legal contracts.
Once completed, the ANB will enable organisations to digitally manage the lifecycle of a contract, not just from negotiation to signing, but also continuing over the term of the agreement, with transparency and permissioned-based access among parties in the network. The service will provide organisations the ability to use blockchain-based smart contracts to trigger business processes and events.
ANB will provide smart legal contracts (SLC) that contain smart clauses with the ability to record external data sources such as Internet of Things (IoT) device data, enabling these clauses to self-execute if specified contract conditions are met.
For example, construction site sensors could record the time and date of a delivery of a load on the blockchain and trigger a smart contract between the construction company and the bank that would automatically notify the bank that terms have been met to provide payment on that load delivery.
ANB will be the first large-scale, publicly available blockchain solution available to businesses of all kinds across Australia, and designed for Australian legal compliance.
Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that enables permissioned sharing of an immutable record among parties to create consensus and trust. It empowers multiple trading partners to collaborate and establish a single shared view of a contract without compromising details, privacy or confidentiality. Blockchain-enabled smart contracts also hold the potential to be used with AI and advanced analytics to help ensure regulatory compliance or to provide new business insights.
“Technologies like blockchain are set to transform the legal industry and the wider business landscape as we know it,” Natasha Blycha, Blockchain and smart legal contract lead from Herbert Smith Freehills said.
“This presents a huge opportunity for agile and forward-thinking firms and has potential to deliver significant benefits to our clients and the business community as a whole. Our clients are enthusiastic about process automation, and how it can support a move away from paper-based systems, simplify supply chains and quickly and securely share information with customers and regulators.”
Consortium partners Herbert Smith Freehills, Data61 and IBM will first test the concept as a pilot project, using IBM Blockchain. The consortium is already working with another Australian law firm to bring the ANB to market. Going forward, regulators, banks, law firms and other Australian businesses will be invited to participate in the pilot which is expected to start before the end of the year.
“IBM Blockchain and the IBM Cloud provide the highest level of security to support even highly regulated industries such as healthcare and government, and IBM has extensive experience building blockchain networks and convening large consortia focused around solving important business problems,” said vice president and partner, cognitive process transformation at IBM Global Business Services Paul Hutchison.
“Blockchain will be to transactions what the internet was to communication – what starts as a tool for sharing information becomes transformational once adoption is widespread. The ANB could be that inflection point for commercial blockchain, spurring innovation and economic development throughout Australia.”
In 2017, Data61 delivered two comprehensive reports for Treasury on how blockchain technology could be adopted across government and industry in Australia.
“Our reports identified distributed ledger technology as a significant opportunity for Australia to create productivity benefits and drive local innovation,” said senior research scientist at CSIRO’s Data61 Dr Mark Staples.
“Data61’s independence and world-leading expertise will help to catalyse the creation of digital infrastructure for Australian businesses to transition to a digitally-enabled future. For complex enterprise contracts, there are huge opportunities to benefit from our research into blockchain architecture and into computational law. Smart contracts have many applications, and as the ANB progresses we look forward to exploring other business use cases to roll out.”
Should the Australian pilot be successful, the consortium intends to roll out the technology to other markets beyond Australia.
 

The Age of Hydrogen comes a step closer

Australia is a step closer to a new hydrogen production and export industry following the national science agency’s successful refuelling of two fuel cell vehicles.
CSIRO chief executive Larry Marshall was one of the first to ride in the Toyota Mirai and Hyundai Nexo vehicles powered by ultra-high purity hydrogen, produced in Queensland using CSIRO’s membrane technology.
This technology will pave the way for bulk hydrogen to be transported in the form of ammonia, using existing infrastructure, and then reconverted back to hydrogen at the point of use.
It has the potential to fill the gap in the technology chain to supply fuel cell vehicles around the world with low-emissions hydrogen sourced from Australia.
The membrane separates ultra-high purity hydrogen from ammonia, while blocking all other gases.

Energy researchers in the hydrogen lab. ©John Nguyen Photography 2016.

It links hydrogen production, distribution and delivery in the form of a modular unit that can be used at, or near, a refuelling station.
This means that the transportation and storage of hydrogen – currently a complex and relatively expensive process – is simplified, allowing bulk hydrogen to be transported economically and efficiently in the form of liquid ammonia.
Recent advances in solar and electrochemical technologies mean renewable hydrogen production is expected to become competitive with fossil fuel-based production, providing an opportunity to decarbonise both the energy and transport sectors while creating new export opportunities.
CSIRO chief executive Dr Larry Marshall said he was excited by the prospect of a growing global market for clean hydrogen, and the potential for a national renewable hydrogen export industry, to benefit Australia.
“This is a watershed moment for energy, and we look forward to applying CSIRO innovation to enable this exciting renewably-sourced fuel and energy storage medium a smoother path to market,” Dr Marshall said.
“I’m delighted to see strong collaboration and the application of CSIRO know-how to what is a key part of the overall energy mix.”
BOC sales and marketing director Bruce Currie congratulated CSIRO on the successful refuelling of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, which proves the effectiveness of CSIRO’s membrane technology from generation, right through to point of use.
“BOC’s innovative engineering team is proud to be collaborating with CSIRO researchers on this technology breakthrough, as we focus on advancing the hydrogen economy and global transition towards clean hydrogen for mobility and energy,” Mr Currie said.
Following this successful demonstration, the technology will be increased in scale and deployed in several larger-scale demonstrations, in Australia and abroad.
The project received $1.7 million from the Science and Industry Endowment Fund (SIEF), which was matched by CSIRO.
In addition to its membrane technology, CSIRO is applying its expertise to all stages of the hydrogen technology chain (including solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, grid management, water electrolysis, ammonia synthesis, direct ammonia utilisation via combustion and/or fuel cells, as well as hydrogen production).
 

CSIRO scoops Boeing award for second year running

Members of CSIRO and Boeing’s leadership teams recently met at CSIRO’s space facility in Canberra.

Global aerospace giant Boeing has named CSIRO as technology supplier of the year for 2017.
It is the second consecutive year that Australia’s national science agency has picked up the top award, building on the recognition it received as Boeing’s academia supplier of the year in 2010.
Selected from a field of more than 13,000 suppliers from 50 countries, CSIRO was one of 13 organisations – and the only one from Australia – to be recognised this year.
Delivering technology innovations that “were instrumental to Boeing worker safety”, helped advance production efficiency and “delivered Boeing’s competitive advantage in the avionics business” were cited as some of the reasons for CSIRO retaining the Technology Award it won in 2016.
The Boeing relationship is one of CSIRO’s most enduring and productive. Since 1989 the organisations have invested in projects that take in everything from software to safety systems, cyber security to space science, production efficiency to advanced materials.
In January 2018, the two parties announced an agreement to perform joint research and development in space technologies, signalling a new phase in the partnership.
This was followed by last month’s announcement that CSIRO and Boeing’s respective investment funds were backing Australian nanosatellite communications start-up Myriota.
“We greatly value our long and strong relationship with Boeing, because it’s built on shared values, including trust and respect, safety of our workers and striving for excellence in everything we do,” CSIRO Chief Executive Dr Larry Marshall said.
“Like Boeing, CSIRO was founded to deliver national missions – we are united by a common purpose to make life better, whether it’s on the ground, in the air, or on Mars.
“We’re excited to be expanding our partnership into space, creating opportunities for not only new knowledge about our Universe, but new opportunities for humankind.”
Over the course of their 29-year partnership CSIRO and Boeing have delivered a range of technological breakthroughs, creating jobs and growth in Australia and the US.
CSIRO’s “Paintbond” technology, for instance, has been applied to more than a thousand Boeing airplanes, including some in the skies above Australia, saving millions of dollars in maintenance costs.
The strong relationship with CSIRO was a key factor in Boeing choosing Australia as the location for its largest research and development operation outside the United States.
Last year the two organisations signed a new $35 million five-year deal to work together on a broad range of areas of mutual interest including space sciences, advanced materials and manufacturing.
 

The science of getting goods to the markets from the CSIRO

Researchers have provided the most detailed map of routes and costings across Australia’s entire agricultural supply chain, potentially saving the industry millions of dollars annually.
CSIRO researchers have applied the logistics tool TraNSIT (Transport Network Strategic Investment Tool) to 98 per cent of agriculture transport across Australia including commodities such as beef, sheep, goats, dairy, pigs, poultry, grains, cotton, rice, sugar, stockfeed, horticultural and even buffalo.
The information was presented in the final TraNSIT agricultural report.
Transport infrastructure is essential to moving over 80 million tonnes of Australian agricultural (including horticultural) output between farms, storage, processors and to markets each year and  costs close to $6 billion annually.
The TraNSIT tool identifies ways to reduce travel distance and time, save fuel costs, cut down on wear and tear to vehicles and produce and minimise stress for both truck drivers and livestock.
“Farmers will be saving money on transport as well as being able to deliver food to the market faster and with less damage and disruption,” CSIRO’s TraNSIT project leader Dr Andrew Higgins said.
“We expect these savings will eventually be passed onto the consumers.”
In 2013, CSIRO developed TraNSIT to provide a comprehensive view of transport logistics costs and benefits based on infrastructure investments in agriculture supply chains in Australia.
An initiative of the Federal Government’s Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper, the tool was originally applied to the beef industry before being extended to all agriculture transport across Australia.
The first project under the $100 million Beef Roads program will be the sealing of 17km of the Clermont to Alpha Road in Central Queensland, which is due to start early next year.
The $8m works will improve road safety and access for oversize vehicles while reducing freight and maintenance costs.
Besides the latest TraNSIT agricultural report focusing on each agricultural commodity, it also features a flood case study and rail to road scenarios.
“Several case studies were identified by industry and government for this final report, representing TraNSIT’s diversity of applications across Australia,” Dr Higgins said.
Researchers applied TraNSIT to evaluate the impact of road closures and detours on the transport of valuable crops and livestock during flood events, using Forbes in Central West NSW as an important case study.
From early September to mid-October in 2016, severe rainfall caused extensive road closures throughout NSW with Forbes becoming particularly isolated.
“The Forbes area is a diverse agricultural region of grain production, beef cattle, poultry, dairy and pigs,” Dr Higgins said.
“There was about a $2m increase in transport costs created by the short term and long term road closures from this flooding event, and about another 500 vehicle trips that could not occur as there was no alternative routes.
“The cost would have been even greater if the floods had occurred during harvest season where more cotton and grain are being transported in large volumes on the roads.”
Using TraNSIT, researchers can analyse several ways to reduce the economic impact of floods in country regions and throughout Australia including upgrading or raising particular bridges to reduce the frequency of closures from flooding.
This will in turn reduce the occurrences where cattle or harvested crops cannot reach their market.
The rail-to-road hypothetical scenario looked at the impact of shifting all agriculture (grains, beef, sugar, cotton) that currently use rail to be road only.
Grains were more expensive ($208m) when transported by road while cattle (or beef) was much less expensive (about 70 per cent less). These differences were primarily due to rail wagon capacity versus semi-trailer capacity.
TraNSIT is now being applied overseas, particularly in Indonesia, Laos and Vietnam to address supply chain inefficiencies and cross-border bottlenecks.
For more information on TraNSIT and to view the final agricultural report, visit https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/LWF/Areas/Landscape-management/Livestock-logistics/TRANSIT.
 

Women In Industry 2017 award winners announced

Around 250 guests celebrated the achievements of the Women in Industry Award nominees, finalists and winners at a gala presentation dinner in Melbourne on Thursday, 22 June.
The fourth annual awards night, hosted by The Project’s Gorgi Coghlan, recognised the achievements of women working within the logistics, commercial road transport, mining, engineering and manufacturing industries, and aims to raise the profile of women within industry, as well as promote and encourage excellence.
The winners in ten categories were decided by judges Cathy Foley, Deputy and Science Director of CSIRO Manufacturing; Noelene Watson, former Chair, Australian Trucking Association; Christine Gibbs Stewart, CEO, Austmine; Megan Edwards, Head of Membership Services, Austmine; and Irene Godeau, Director – Communications and Marketing, Advanced Manufacturing Growth Centre.
In the Rising Star of the Year category, sponsored by Atlas Copco, the judges awarded the honour to Michaela Craft, Region South Pacific – Energy Coordinator, BOC Limited.
Social Leader of the Year, sponsored by COG Advertising, was awarded to Beverly Williams, Industry Pathways and Placement Coordinator – Automotive Centre of Excellence, Bendigo Kangan Institute.
Business Development Manager of the Year, sponsored by ABB, went to Shelley Hyslop, Major Account Manager, ATOM.
Safety Advocacy Award, sponsored by BOC Limited, was awarded to Catherine King, Country Health, Safety and Environment Manager, ABB Australia.
The Excellence in Manufacturing award, sponsored by Manark Printing, went to Lisa Lamb, Manufacturing Director – Products of National Significance, Seqirus.
In the Excellence in Mining category, sponsored by MMD, the award went to Gina Rinehart, Executive Chairman, Hancock Prospecting.
Winner of the Excellence in Engineering category, sponsored by Cummins, was Philippa Craft, Product Manager – Bulk Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, Helium, BOC Limited.
Excellence in Road Transport, sponsored by NatRoad, went to Pam McMillan, Chair, Transport Women Australia.
Both the Industry Advocacy and the Mentor of the Year awards, sponsored by MEGATRANS2018 and CSR Lightweight Systems, respectively, went to Penelope Twemlow, CEO, Energy Skills Queensland.
“We would like to congratulate all attendees and finalists for joining us at this year’s Women in Industry Awards,” said event organiser, Lauren Winterbottom. “It was amazing to celebrate and promote the achievements of so many women in industry, and we hope to see you all next year.”
The fourth edition of the awards was complemented by the inaugural Women In Industry Conference, which took place at Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre earlier that day.
According to Bianca Dohnt, Editor, Trailer Magazine, who hosted the day’s proceedings, the conference was a tremendous success.
“We heard the fascinating stories, advice and statistics from an intriguing group of women across the road transport, mining, engineering, logistics, manufacturing, aerospace, food and beverage production and infrastructure industries,” she explained to guests at the Awards night.
“Though our sectors are all very different, we came together because we share a common interest in advocating for our industries, the opportunities they provide for ambitious women, and how those women can make the industries better in return.
“At the Conference today, we created some real action plans to encourage more women to pursue greater success, and spread the word of our industries’ potential to the countless women out there who may not know of the opportunities that are waiting for them.
“I am proud to be an ambassador for events like Women In Industry, and be a part of an alliance of women, and men, who appreciate and champion the talents that women can provide, and the difference we make in any chosen industry.”

Algae to fuel trucks and jobs

 
The production of biodiesel from algae could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, help to address future fuel shortages and create jobs in rural Australia.
 
CSIRO Energy Transformed researcher Dr Tom Beer and his team discovered the humble organisms’ green credentials during a detailed life-cycle analysis of the benefits of algal biodiesel.
 
“Our research has shown that under ideal conditions it is possible to produce algal biodiesel at a lower cost and with less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil diesel,” Dr Beer said.
 
“The greenhouse gas reductions are the result of avoiding the use of a fossil resource for fuel production, capturing methane produced by the processed algae to generate energy and taking into account the potential greenhouse gas offsets from industry.”
 
Algae thrive on carbon dioxide (CO2), which means that environmentally damaging CO2 emissions from industry could also become a useful resource.
 
Algal biodiesel could also offer a number of other benefits.
 
“Making biodiesel from algae removes the issue of competing land use because the facilities would not be established on land that might otherwise be used to grow food and the algal farm has a very low environmental impact in comparison to crops that are grown for biodiesel,” Dr Beer said.
 
“The Flagship’s research has made significant progress in a short time and our extensive biofuels program will continue to develop solutions that result in a secure fuel future for Australia,” Dr Beer said.
 
“Our study also found that the establishment of a 500 hectare algal biodiesel plant in a rural area might create up to 45 jobs and provide opportunities to diversify in the agricultural sector.”
 
The CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship is working with a number of partners, both national and international, to develop a strong algal biofuel research program.
 
“The Flagship’s research has made significant progress in a short time and our extensive biofuels program will continue to develop solutions that result in a secure fuel future for Australia,” Dr Beer said.
 
Despite the global interest in the production of biodiesel from algae, further research is required to create a viable industry with widespread uptake and impact.
 
“Although the findings of our study are very promising, challenges still exist in relation to cost, infrastructure needs and the scale of production required to make algal plants feasible,” Dr Beer said.
 
“We see biodiesel from algae as one potential option for sustainable fuel production amongst a range of other technologies.”
 
The paper, Greenhouse gas sequestration by algae – energy and greenhouse gas life cycle studies, is authored by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric researchers Peter K. Campbell, Tom Beer and David Batten.
 
National Research Flagships
 
CSIRO initiated the National Research Flagships to provide science-based solutions in response to Australia’s major research challenges and opportunities. The nine Flagships form multidisciplinary teams with industry and the research community to deliver impact and benefits for Australia.

Cheap biofuels from leaves and twigs

Non-food sources for biofuels.

Non-food plant materials produce lignocellulose,

a source of alternative fuels. (Photo: Gregory Heath, CSIRO)

Almost any leaves, twigs and bark can be converted into a biofuel, according to a new report from the CSIRO.

Lignocellulose, a component of plants and wood, can be used as a source of biofuels, with the potential to produce much more cost-competitive fuels.

Dr Victoria Haritos said the technology to convert plants into fuel presents a huge opportunity for Australia to expand the clean energy market.

“We have the potential to grow a lot of lignocellulose, the raw material for biofuels, we have a lot of land that would be suitable for growing this plant in Australia. And we also have the technological know-how,” she said.

“We see the great potential in the use of lignocellulose, such as plant leaves and woods, simply because there’s so more of it. And it grows so much faster with so much more biomass.”

Dr Haritos said the lignocellulose-extracted biofuel would represent the second generation of biofuels, which utilise a wider range of sources to generate fuel.

“The first generation biofuels are what we are familiar with at the moment, which usually come from cane sugar and wheat starch. The second generation biofuels aim to expand the biofuel industry enormously and use non-food sources to produce fuel.”

She said the US companies that are trialling the technology estimated the price of lignocellulose fuels at 26 cents a litre, an equivalent cost of oil at USD 40-60 a barrel.

Another advantage of the technology, she said, is its compatibility with current biofuel facilities.

 

“They [lignocellulose fuels] are certainly useful for production. For some types of the conversion of plant materials, you can just add on an extra unit in front of the current sugar biofuel facility,” Dr Haritos said.

Intermodal investment is the key to lower emissions

The introduction of the emissions trading scheme should not be about fuel prices, but about making “fundamental changes” to establish greener supply chains, CEO of Australian Logistics Council (ALC) Hal Morris said.

The CSIRO has projected the most likely scenario for fuel prices under the carbon regime would be a 25-cent-per-litre increase, half the increase that the transport industry experienced over the last 12 months.

Mr Morris said while the estimated price rise would not significantly affect the sector, that would not solve the real problem in Australia’s supply chains.

“The cost increase will be passed on to customers and wouldn’t have much effect on the industry. And that’s the problem,” he said.

“Because it’s about changing behaviours and changing how supply chains operate to get a better carbon outcome. We need to use the carrot as well as the stick. We need to invest in innovation and technology, and assist companies to make the changes needed to get greener supply chains.”

 

Mr Morris said that while the government is showing its commitment to upgrade the nation’s infrastructure, the freight industry is faced with a dilemma.  

“The Australian freight sector is experiencing this ongoing, compounding growth and that doesn’t seem to be slowing any time soon,” he said.

“While freight demand is expected to double by 2020, the massive challenge is to figure out how to handle the demand using far less fuel, with fewer vehicle movements and less carbon produced.” 

Mr Morris will chair the 8th Annual AusIntermodal Summit, which will be held on September 3 and 4 in Melbourne.

The summit will examine key agendas regarding Australian freight, bringing together government officials, CEOs of Australia’s major ports, freight operators, shipping lines, rail companies, stevedores and infrastructure companies.

Crude oil found in every backyard

CSIRO and Monash University have developed a chemical process that turns green waste into a stable bio-crude oil,  which can be used to produce high-value chemicals and biofuels, including both petrol and diesel replacement fuels.

"By making changes to the chemical process, we’ve been able to create a concentrated bio-crude which is much more stable than that achieved elsewhere in the world," said Dr Steven Loffler of CSIRO Forest Biosciences.

"This makes it practical and economical to produce bio-crude in local areas for transport to a central refinery, overcoming the high costs and greenhouse gas emissions otherwise involved in transporting bulky green wastes over long distances."

The process uses low value waste such as forest thinnings, crop residues, waste paper and garden waste, significant amounts of which are currently dumped in landfill or burned.

"By using waste, our Furafuel technology overcomes the food versus fuel debate which surrounds biofuels generated from grains, corn and sugar," said Dr Loffler.

"The project forms part of CSIRO’s commitment to delivering cleaner energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by improving technologies for converting waste biomass to transport fuels."

The plant wastes being targeted for conversion into biofuels contain chemicals known as lignocellulose, which is increasingly favoured around the world as a raw material for the next generation of bio-ethanol.

Lignocellulose is both renewable and potentially greenhouse gas neutral. It is predominantly found in trees and is made up of cellulose; lignin, a natural plastic; and hemicellulose.

CSIRO and Monash University will apply to patent the chemical processes underpinning the conversion of green wastes to bio-crude oil once final laboratory trials are completed.

The research to date is supported by funding from CSIRO’s Energy Transformed Flagship program, Monash University, Circa Group and Forest Wood Products Australia.

Read more at www.csiro.au/science/ps3vf.html. A podcast is also available at www.csiro.au/multimedia/OilFromRubbishPodcast.html.

Photo: Waste paper is a potential source of fuels (CSIRO)

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