Visibility up to 97% with voice technology

Honeywell, VoiceID and Icon Integration have completed a project to overhaul Viridian Glass’ stock location processes at its Melbourne manufacturing and distribution plant, and as a result stock visibility increased to 97%.
Viridian is the only glass manufacturer in Australia, and the largest glass supplier in the country. To service the wide range of customers across Australia with glass-based goods, Viridian operates its manufacturing operations in conjunction with a major distribution centre (DC).
“Under our previous manual warehouse management processes, we couldn’t run a cyclic count program due to the poor location accuracy, meaning we had to conduct four wall-to-wall stocktakes per year. These were labour intensive and disruptive to the business,” said Justin McKenzie, warehouse and distribution manager for Viridian Glass.
Working with Honeywell, VoiceID and Icon Integration, Viridian deployed the SAP WMS coupled with Honeywell’s A700 voice picking system, to drive labour cost savings, greater visibility of stock, as well as key operational efficiency improvements
“Our newly approved stock take procedure is to do cyclic counts of locations once per quarter. This means we no longer have to stop processes for wall-to-wall counts, which increases our productivity. Stock accuracy by location went from 25% per location to 86% after the first three months. At the moment, stocktake location accuracy is tracking at 97%. An amazing turnaround,” said Justin McKenzie.
Viridian’s industrial environment, its large plant and materials handling equipment lend themselves perfectly to a hands-free, voice driven environment, to the extent that the company now uses voice for every workflow without the support of RF.
Today when an order comes into the DC’s SAP WMS, the worker is allocated a warehouse task. The operators confirm the pick locations, frame numbers and pack numbers picked for staging prior to despatch. This has drastically reduced the chance of picking inaccuracies, or human error and significantly improved inventory accuracy.
Voice technology has also enhanced worker safety on the distribution centre floor, according to Justin McKenzie. “The hands-free, eyes-free aspect of Voice makes workers much more aware of their environment. It allows them to anticipate the actions of others for increased safety in the warehouse. Today on the distribution centre floor we work hands free, from the moment the glass is manufactured until the point it leaves our warehouse.”

Business confidence is solid, but where are the jobs?

In Dun & Bradstreet’s January Business Expectations Survey, businesses indicated that they would slow hiring in the quarter ahead, despite increased expectations for sales, profits and capital investment. Meanwhile, companies reported higher sales in the December quarter, but lower employment levels, selling prices, profits and capital investment.
According to Stephen Koukoulas, economics adviser to Dun and Bradstreet: “Business expectations through to the middle of 2017 are mixed, and have taken a step down from the optimism seen at the end of 2016. Encouragingly, expected sales continue to rise at a solid pace, which points to ongoing expansion in activity into 2017.
“Of note also is the steady rise in expected capital expenditure, which is an encouraging aspect of the survey given how weak the official business investment data have been for the last few years,” Mr Koukoulas said.
Dun & Bradstreet’s Business Expectations Index, the average of the survey’s measures of Sales, Profits, Employment and Capital Investment, climbed to 19.5 points for the June quarter of 2017, up 3.2 per cent from 18.9 points for the March quarter 2017 and up 53.5 per cent from the June quarter 2016 figure. The preliminary Q2 2017 result is 10.1 points above the 10-year average of 9.1 points. The index is currently at its highest point since the December quarter of 2015, when it reached 21.8 points.
“After a minor lift, expected selling prices are moderating, which indicates that inflation will remain very low through to at least the middle of 2017. The Selling Prices Expectations Index has a good record for matching broad changes in the official CPI data,” Mr Koukoulas noted.
The Sales Expectations Index jumped to 36.4 points in the June quarter, up from 28.1 points in the March quarter and 23.6 points in the previous corresponding quarter. For the June quarter of 2017, 44.8 per cent of businesses expect to see an increase in sales compared to the June quarter of 2016, while 8.4 per cent expected a decrease in sales. Expectations for sales increased quarter-on-quarter for all surveyed industries except Retail; and expectations for sales increased year-on-year for all industries except Finances, Insurance & Real Estate.
Plans for capital investment continue to increase: 19.4 per cent of companies say they will increase capital spending in June 2017 compared to June 2016, while 5.9 per cent say they will lower their capital expenditure. The Capital Investment Index now sits at 13.5 points, up from 11.8 points in the March quarter and 8.7 points for the June quarter of 2016.
Expectations for profit in the June quarter are largely on par with the March quarter, with the Profit Expectations Index moving from 21.0 points to 21.5 points. However, compared to the June quarter of 2016, businesses are notably more optimistic regarding profits: the index has jumped 110.5 per cent from 10.2 points.
Despite the apparent confidence regarding sales, profits and capital investment, the Employment Expectations Index slipped to its lowest point since the December quarter of 2013. The index fell to 6.7 points for the June quarter, compared to 14.6 points in the March quarter and 8.3 points in the previous corresponding quarter. For the coming quarter, 16.5 per cent of businesses say they intend to employ more staff than a year ago, while 9.9 per cent expect to employ fewer.
“Of some concern is the pull-back in expectations for employment, which has dipped to its lowest level in over three years. This indicator fits well with the official labour force data which continues to show a sluggish pace of employment growth and a minor lift in the unemployment rate,” Mr Koukoulas said.
Of the seven industries surveyed, only the Wholesale and Construction industries had a higher Employment Expectations Index for the June quarter compared to the March quarter. The Retail industry saw a particularly sharp decline in employment expectations, with the index dropping from 11.3 points in the first quarter to -3.5 points in the second quarter.
In general, Retailers expressed a muted outlook for the second quarter. Expectations for sales, employment, profits and selling prices were lower than the previous quarter. However, compared to the same time a year earlier, the Sales Expectations Index and Profit Expectations Index were higher. Furthermore, plans for capital expenditure were up in the Retail sector, with the index lifting to 9.2 points, up from 4.7 points in the March quarter and 9.1 points in the previous corresponding quarter.
The Services sector also saw quarterly declines in four out of five components: its Employment, Selling Prices, Profit and Capital Investment Expectations Indices were down, but its Sales Expectations Index rose to a two-year high of 39.3 points. The Services sector’s lowered expectations for the quarter ahead are reflected in its response to the question “Are you generally more optimistic about business growth this year compared to 2016?” Just 50 per cent of Services companies said they were more optimistic (the lowest positive response of all seven sectors) while 32.1 per cent said they were not (the highest negative response of all seven sectors).
By comparison, the Wholesale industry had the highest positive response to the same question (75.9 per cent are more optimistic) and the lowest negative response (13.8 per cent are less optimistic). This also reflects the sector’s broader survey results. Its Sales Expectations Index (50.4 points) is at its highest point since Q2 2000; its Profit Expectations Index (29.1 points) is at its highest point since Q1 2013; its Employee Expectations Index (18.2 points) is at its highest point since Q4 2003, as is its overall Business Expectations Index (28.1 points).
Meanwhile, after returning the lowest Business Expectations Index of all sectors in Q1 2017, the Construction industry bounced back for the second quarter: its Business Expectations Index rose from 5.9  oints to 23.4 points, driven by increased expectations across all components. Most notably, its Sales Expectations Index leapt from 9.8 points to 39.0 points.
Bucking the national trend, Construction’s employment expectations also saw a sharp increase from 5.8 points in Q1 to 18.3 points in Q2. Some 23.4 per cent of Construction companies said they would hire more staff in Q2 2017 than in Q2 2016, while 5.0 per cent said they would employ fewer. However, Construction firms also flagged “Access to or a shortage of skilled labour” as the biggest barrier to business growth in the year ahead.
Across all sectors, actual employment numbers were down in the December quarter 2016 compared to the September quarter: the Employment Actuals Index slid from 4.8 points to 0.5 points – its lowest since the September quarter of 2013. Q4 2016 also saw lower selling prices (8.7 points, down from 10.3 points in Q3), profits (6.8 points, down from 8.3 points) and capital investment (5.8 points, down from 9.1 points). Only the Sales Actuals Index rose in Q4 2016, jumping from 12.8 points to 18.0 points. All industries except Services saw an increase in Sales in Q4 2016 compared to Q3 (7.8 points, down from 14.2 points).
By and large, businesses do not expect to be impacted by the result of November’s US federal election. Some 63.8 per cent of all businesses said the outcome will not affect their operations. 9.8 per cent expect a positive outcome, compared to the 8.6 per cent who expect a negative impact. The remaining 17.9 per cent are unsure. In general, medium-sized companies are more optimistic on this matter than small companies.
Businesses based in the Northern Territory were the least optimistic overall about Donald Trump’s election: 13.6 per cent of companies said they expect a negative impact, and no companies expect a positive impact.
South Australian companies were the most optimistic overall, with 15.2 per cent anticipating a positive outcome, compared to the 3.0 per cent who expect a negative outcome. Similarly, 12.1 per cent of Tasmania-based businesses expect a positive outcome, while none expect a negative outcome. Businesses feeling optimistic are most likely to be from Western Australia (27.5 percent), while businesses anticipating a negative impact are more likely to be from Victoria (28.6 per cent).
“Overall, the Business Expectations Survey points to the economy continuing to grow at a moderate pace, with a generally soft tone for job creation. Inflation is expected to stay low which should influence the Reserve Bank to keep interest rates at record lows,” Mr Koukoulas said.

Warehouse management system market – worth $4.2 bn by 2022

The warehouse management system (WMS) market size will reach US$3,112 million ($4.2 billion) by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 15.2% from 2016 to 2022, according to a new report published by Allied Market Research. The growth is expected to come as a result of the increase in inventory and workload of WMS in warehouse operations, and Europe is expected to be the largest market during the forecast period.
The report, ‘Global Warehouse Management System Market by Component Type, Industry Vertical, and Geography—Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecasts, 2014–2022’, found that among the various industry verticals, transportation & logistics is projected to dominate the market, however pharmaceuticals industry is expected to have the fastest growth rate.
“The European market is most productive as compared to others with diverse industry verticals implementing WMS at a greater extent. Furthermore, it is projected to generate the highest market revenue over the forecast period with predominant deployments in the transportation & logistics industry” said Seapee Bajaj, Lead Analyst, Construction & Manufacturing at AMR.
Asia-Pacific is estimated to grow fastest due to increase in the adoption of WMS services and extensive growth in Japan, China, Australia, and India.

Amazon takes 1 in 5 warehouses leases in UK in 2016

Amazon leased seven million square feet of warehouse space in the UK in 2016, 19 per cent of the region’s total letting for the year until mid December. Real estate consultancy Gerald Eve’s Prime Logistics report analyses the UK’s 50,000+ sq ft warehouse market. Amazon’s dominance was particularly pronounced, it found, during Q3 2016, when Amazon took 3.4 million sq ft of new space, a quarter of the 13.8 million sq ft of total lettings.
“For one company to be responsible for a fifth of all lettings is remarkable – all the more so given Q3 saw the highest-ever quarterly take-up, putting 2016 on course to be the strongest year for the industrial occupier market we have recorded,” said Richard Ludlow, partner at Gerald Eve. “Despite the uncertainty created by the Brexit vote in June, occupier demand for warehouse space remains strong, and it is online retailers such as Amazon that are underpinning this interest. The strength of this demand highlights just how robust the sector’s future prospects are.”

Harvey Norman founder on Amazon in Australia: the battle plan

Gerry Harvey, one half of the founding duo behind household goods retailer Harvey Norman, recently spoke out against the rise of Amazon, the fall of small businesses and why he’s confident Harvey Norman will weather the storm.
Speaking to 9news’ Eddy Meyer, Harvey bemoaned the lack of corporate etiquette present in Amazon’s operating practices that have led to its success at the expense of smaller enterprises. “In America, it is regarded as a very poor corporate citizen,” he said. “It sent a lot of other retailers broke that used to employ people. They used to pay taxes. Amazon pays virtually no taxes, and they just put a lot of people out of business.”
On Amazon entering the Australian market, Harvey explained that he is not worried for his business’ survival, even though he doesn’t expect the online e-commerce giant to play fair. “For years they’ve been sending goods into Australia with no GST, and we all pay GST. We have been subsidising Amazon for years, now they’re coming here to try and send us all broke. They’re not going to send Harvey Norman broke, but they’re going to be a pain in the backside.”
Norman stated that key to his company’s continuing success will be the service customers receive in store, same-day home delivery and price matching. “We will be competitive with them come hell or high water,” he said. “We are not going to lie down for Amazon and we will still make good profits and pay taxes, which they won’t.”
Norman has no delusions about the battle ahead, “[These] are fighting words,” he told Meyer. “Amazon’s coming here, they’re fighting me, okay? Make no mistake – I’ve got a gun in my holster too.”

Is your returns process flawed?

Voxware has released research highlighting why consumers return items purchased online or by phone and how the returns process affects their future intentions to shop with retailers. The results of the third biennial report, which surveyed more than 500 consumers, demonstrate the increased importance of the returns process in consumer purchasing decisions as well as the impact that shipping incorrect orders has on consumer loyalty. Highlights from the survey include:

  • 8% agree that how well an online retailer handles returns influences whether they will decide to order items from them again in the future.
  • 2% prefer to return items purchased online or by phone with a prepaid mailing label and 44.9% prefer in-store returns.
  • 0% stated that a retailer has sent them an incorrect item for a second time after returning an item that was sent in error.
  • 3% of those who received an incorrect order twice said they are unlikely to shop with that retailer again for future purchases.
  • 4% expect retailers to replace item(s) shipped in error with the correct item(s) in 2 days or less.
  • 7% expect compensation (such as a discount, coupon, or credit) from the retailer when they receive the wrong item or when an item arrives late.
  • 5% are likely or very likely to share their negative experiences about a product and/or retailer online if a delivery is late or the wrong item is received.

“Companies that want to achieve greater brand loyalty must understand the importance of both inbound and outbound distribution operations in the customer decision-making process,” said Keith Phillips, president and CEO, Voxware. “Unfortunately, despite the overwhelming evidence that the returns process affects future buying decisions, this research exposes the gaps many companies still have in their distribution operations. By failing to close these gaps with technology that delivers essential supply chain information exactly when and where it is needed, companies will continue to disappoint customers with late and incorrect orders.”
Consumers consider returns process when making purchasing decisions
One of the most striking findings from this research is that 96.8% of consumers agreed that how well an online retailer handles returns influences whether they will order items from that retailer in the future. This finding cements the fact that, regardless of brand recognition or reputation, nearly all consumers consider what will happen if they need to return an item before they even complete a purchase.
Unfortunately, the survey found that many consumers still suffer from outbound distribution operations processes that lead to an abundance of retailer errors:

  • 2% noted that 10% or more of the items they return are because of retailer error.
  • 4% stated they had received an item that was correct but was the incorrect size or colour.
  • 5% stated they had received the incorrect item altogether.
  • 0% specified they return items received from large retailers more frequently compared to purchases from small retailers.


Aus ranked 34 out of 140 for global connections

DHL has released the fourth edition of its Global Connectedness Index (GCI), a detailed analysis of the state of globalisation around the world, which has ranked Australia 34th out of 140 countries.
The 2016 report shows that global connectedness, measured by cross-border flows of trade, capital, information and people, surpassed its 2007 pre-crisis peak during 2014. In 2015, globalisation’s post-crisis expansion slowed, but the data indicate that it did not go into reverse. Currently available evidence suggests that the world was about eight per cent more connected in 2015 than in 2005.
The information pillar – measured by international internet traffic, telephone call minutes and trade in printed publications – showed the strongest growth over the reporting period (2013-2015). The gains in capital and people flows have been more modest, while the decline in the proportion of goods traded across borders – which began in 2012 – accelerated in 2015.
“Globalisation has served as the world’s engine of progress over the past half century,” commented Deutsche Post DHL Group CEO Frank Appel. “The GCI documents that globalisation has finally recovered from the financial crisis, but faces an uncertain future. It is imperative that policymakers and business leaders support an environment in which globalisation can continue to flourish and improve the lives of citizens around the world.”
“Advanced economies are about four times as deeply integrated into international capital flows, five times as much on people flows, and nine times with respect to information flows,” says globalisation expert Pankaj Ghemawat, who helped research the report. The GCI also notes that if emerging economies become more similar to advanced economies in terms of their connectedness levels, this would provide a powerful boost to overall connectedness.
The 2016 edition also documents a rising proportion of internet traffic crossing national borders, even as international trade and information flows lag their potential. “This underscores the tremendous headroom available for international e-commerce to boost business activity and expand the options available to consumers around the world,” says Jürgen Gerdes, CEO Post – eCommerce – Parcel, Deutsche Post DHL Group.
In addition to a comprehensive overview on the state of globalisation, the 2016 report also provides detailed insights into the connectedness of individual countries and regions. The index ranks countries on their depth (intensity of international flows) and breadth (geographical distribution of flows), which combine for an overall connectedness score between 0 and 100. The Netherlands retained its top rank as the world’s most connected country and Europe is once again the world’s most connected region.
All but two of the top 10 most globalised countries in the world are located in Europe, with Singapore and the United Arab Emirates as the standouts. North America is the second most globally connected region and leads on the capital and information pillars, with the United States as the most connected country in the Americas.

Case study: Innovation in Freight Transportation

Australia has a significant challenge ahead to meet its future freight task, with this task predicted by the 2011 Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) Report 123  to almost double between 2010-2030.  With the overwhelming dominance of road transportation of the non-bulk market (more than 78 per cent), the pressure in meeting this challenge will be felt by road transportation and its associated infrastructure.
It is likely by 2030 that the road transportation industry will require more than an additional 70,000 articulated vehicles to meet this demand.  The BITRE also predicts that although road transportation productivity (based on average vehicle loads) will increase by less than five per cent, compared to around 40 per cent over the prior two decades, the transport needs will still increase significantly.
With this massive increase in vehicles what impact will there be on the ability of road transportation to maintain its service levels? Will governments and industry be able to provide sufficient investment for the maintenance and delivery of infrastructure? And what about the other modes of rail and sea, what investment will occur in the next 15 years to deliver significant productivity gains?
Along with new technologies that can assist existing modes to further increase productivity, perhaps now is the time to also look at new freight transportation modes that don’t require significant infrastructure.
I am seeking the assistance of people based in Australia with supply chain/logistics experience to complete a 10 to15 minute online survey in the aim to collate a broad sample of the value decision makers place on the different qualities of freight transport modes.
A new mode of transport, cargo airships, are being examined as part of this research and whether they can assist in meeting Australia’s future freight task and associated infrastructure challenge.
By completing the survey you are contributing to the assessment of this new mode, which could provide greater operational flexibility and lead to new distribution models.
To fill out the survey, click here.

Why the mining industry needs weighbridges

Having a solid, reliable weighing system in place is essential for operational efficiency, cost control, regulatory compliance, and revenue management of all mines. Visit any quarry or mining site and it is easy to see why weighbridges are indispensable to the industry.
Weighbridges utilise advanced technology to provide accurate and precise weight data. Having more accurate weight data means you can keep closer track of your inventory, obtain precise measurements of incoming and outgoing materials, and minimise wastage onsite. Weighbridges provide legal-for-trade weight readings, helping you record weight data for legislative purposes and any reporting requirements.
Weighbridges can be customised to provide the best solution for your site, no matter how your operation works. They can be installed at ground-level, above-ground or in-ground, with all kinds of sizes and capabilities available on the market. Many manufacturers also offer various accessories such as boom gates, remote displays and traffic control lights.
Weighbridges are heavy duty, able to weigh reliably and accurately, even in tough environments and adverse weather conditions. The provision of accurate weighing data helps you ensure payload accuracy, improving operational efficiency. Weighbridges also enhance worksite safety, as there is no need to unload materials because the weight data is recorded as trucks are directly positioned on the scale.
Weighbridges can improve profitability for operators in the mining industry in multiple ways. Having more accurate weight data enables operators to load vehicles to their maximum capacity – but still avoid overloading fines. One of the biggest benefits weighbridges offer is that drivers can complete weighing transactions at any time without even having to leave their vehicles. Thanks to modern advancements like driver-operated docking stations, automatic number place recognition, and entry and exit barriers, it’s possible to create a completely unattended system. Since the weighbridge can function without a dedicated operator, operating costs are reduced and operating hours are extended.
Weighbridges come with user-friendly software that automatically stores weight data. It’s possible to download the data to analyse site operations, monitor inventory, fulfil batching tasks, vehicle control, and a host of other uses. The software can often be integrated with word processing, spreadsheet and accounting programs, making invoicing and reporting an easier job. Having this wealth of information in real time can help mining operators monitor costs, improve efficiency, control wastage and increase profitability.
Ultrahawke is a provider of weighbridges and truck scales. They supply high-quality, Australian-made weighbridges with both analogue and digital load cells, and digital weight indicators.

How to prevent warehouse accidents

Within the logistics arena, there are a myriad of scenarios where safety can be compromised. In a highly controlled environment like a warehouse, accidents are still highly likely to occur and even more so if the cargo stored consists of hazardous goods. In the US alone, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) indicated that across the United States, there were over 150,000 people working in warehouses across the country. So if one considers the immense amount of cargo movement all across the Asia Pacific region, these numbers would easily surpass the US.
With the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) and mining sector growing rapidly, 3PLs have had to increase their agility in terms of turnaround times. The result is a surge in workload in this region, which in turn creates a simultaneous focus on the safety and ergonomics in the warehouses. This then brings about key concerns centring around operations involving lifting actions, vehicular movement and electrical functions, or a combination of all.
Forklifts, electrical and wiring, hazard communication, exits, mechanical power transmission and respiratory protection are just some of the hotspots identified by Safework Australia over the years that can be applicable to a warehouse just about anywhere. Thus it would be bad for the business if an employer ignores these elements that constitute a good and safe work environment.
Infusing the mindset of the integration of a pro-active approach to the management of safety, providing due attention and budgets on injury prevention into corporate culture would go a long way in reaping productivity and efficiency in the facility. Nobody would be looking forward to a 3PL version of Deepwater Horizon.
Safety guidelines in most industrial facilities are mandatory especially when it comes to hazardous materials. Attention needs to be given to liquid spills, which should to be cleaned as soon as possible because the exposure to workers is very high and can cause many problems so fixing damaged equipment is paramount. Preventing or reducing the chances of injury can be as simple as optimising procedures to manage the physical layout of the warehouse, reduce walking times and making sure access to equipment and material is easy.
In the Asia Pacific, German chemical producer BASF utilises its own Warehouse Safety Assessment (WSA) tool – a standardised questionnaire designed to assess the quality, safety and environmental management systems of third-party warehouses. The trained safety adviser will be responsible for undertaking these WSAs. At the end of each review, corrective and improvement actions will be discussed and agreed between the assessor and the assessed company.
In the packaging arena, containers have been undergoing a redesign because of the introduction of weight limits on containers. On paper, this will look to provide easy access to the product and reduce the stress due to lifting.
Replacing wooden pallets and corrugated boxes to reusable plastic containers will reduce or stamp out the possibilities of injuries. The key is to reduce the bending, reaching, and pulling associated with the tasks in warehouses and manufacturing facilities.
Looking for ergonomic options that increase the comfort of the operator when choosing a new forklift or automation technology for your warehouse will likely see higher productivity together with improved health and energy levels. The assist devices for moving containers could also include vacuum lift machines that use a vacuum of air to grip and lift boxes, or even computer-controlled assist devices that are sensor guided and can make fast, automatic adjustments for accurate container placement.
Manual handling has seen a steady recently as there has been a shift towards the investment in automation of order picking – especially forklifts. For the sake of efficiency these machines are designed for heavy lifting in distribution centres (DCs). Looking at the downside, without proper training and instruction, they can also cause injury to persons and damage to property so manufacturers of this equipment have been looking at ways to prevent these outcomes occurring. One tip is to invest in impact shock switches, which automatically switch the vehicle off upon any collision.
Models by leading forklift producers Junghenrich, Crown and Toyota offer impact resistance, which has increased up to threefold combining aluminium and cast iron in the manufacture, helping the trucks to cope with the normal bumps and scrapes of everyday applications. Linked suspension castors have been fitted to provide maximum load and truck stability on any surface.
Let’s not forget that workers in a warehouse also exert themselves on strenuous ergonomic activity that stress the body, which offers up risks such as repetitive motion strain and other potential injuries. The only way around this is education even if employees should be able to identify tasks that may involve higher risks in the warehouse. Employers need to be proactive and identify tell-tale signs of the symptoms of discomfort.
It is important that employees should ensure that any incident, accident or symptom be reported to their supervisor so that the appropriate measures can be put in place. Following this, the management has to give the appropriate attention to these incidents with documentation for follow up and action.
In Australia, with workers being aware of their rights to a safe work environment, plus the increasing insurance coverage of workers in a workplace, a safe warehouse environment will ultimately see that important cost savings are maintained with increase productivity and reduced equipment downtime.

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