Reverse logistics – who does it well? From MHD magazine

It would be tempting to think of reverse logistics as forward logistics done backwards. Tempting, but wrong. Reverse logistics isn’t simply a reverse gear. Almost everything can change. Products come back in dribs-and-drabs, not in neatly packaged batches. They don’t come back to predefined schedules. They don’t even come back in the same state in which they went out.
Reverse logistics can also have a dramatic effect on steering a company’s fortunes. Go one way and you can boost profitability, customer loyalty, and brand image. Go another way and you’ll leak dollars, lose customers, and even run afoul of regulations about what to do with stuff that people no longer want. Reverse logistics is therefore worth doing, and worth doing properly.
Looking to real-life examples for inspiration, we can ask, ‘Who does reverse logistics well?’ Companies like Sears, Dell, and Zappos are often pointed to as models to follow for reverse logistics. Yet given the changeable nature of the beast, we also need to ask what ‘doing it well’ means in this context, especially if we want to know how much of others’ success can be applied to one’s own organisation.

First, understand ‘what’ and ‘why’
Let’s take a step back. Reverse logistics, while not being the opposite of forward logistics, is still about products moving backwards in the supply chain. Often, the term reverse logistics is used for products that have already reached the final point of sale or been bought by a customer. However, remember that products or sub-assemblies that never made it out of the factory may need to travel backwards one or more stages along the supply chain. This also qualifies as reverse logistics.
Reasons why reverse logistics are necessary can be diverse. Customers may find a product to be faulty or unsuitable for their needs. They may have ordered more than they need. They may have simply changed their mind. Manufacturers may recall stock because of flaws or to replace older products with newer ones. They may recall inventory from retailers or reprocess it because it has passed its sell-by date or demand is insufficient.
Many views of reverse logistics performance
Different parties judge whether reverse logistics is done well or poorly in different ways. For customers, the quality of reverse logistics revolves around the ease with which they can return a product and be reimbursed. US retail pioneers Sears and J.C. Penney understood this a century ago, when they offered money-back guarantees to their clientele. That meant that customers felt safe when shopping, increasing sales and customer loyalty.
From a shipping standpoint, reverse logistics works well when the product being returned is routed directly to the correct location. In a manufacturing plant, reverse logistics performance is tied to the money or materials that can be recovered cost-effectively from the returned product. This might be by reselling, repairing, remanufacturing, or reclaiming parts of value. For regulators and the public, reverse logistics may be judged by how safe and how green the process is, for example, recycling products instead of throwing them into a landfill.
Some estimates put product returns at 6% of total sales revenues. In addition, returns typically cost more to handle than outbound shipments – 3 to 4 times more for traditional retail companies, for example. Clearly, successful reverse logistics cannot be left to luck. A plan is necessary, possibly based on one of the following strategies.

“Clearly, successful reverse logistics cannot be left to luck. A plan is necessary.”

Reverse logistics strategy 1: don’t do it!
We’re not talking about just sweeping returns under the carpet. Instead, we need a way to constructively avoid the need for reverse logistics.

  • Persuade the customer otherwise. IT vendor Dell, for example, handles requests for returns via its support organisation. Reps work with customers to get computers installed and working as required, rather than shipping them back. Customer satisfaction goes up, reverse logistics costs come down.
  • Pay for the return not to happen. Procter and Gamble developed its ‘zero returns’ policy a couple of decades ago. Also known as a swell allowance or adjustable-rate policy, there is no physical return of products. Instead the supplier (such as P & G) issues a credit allowance.
  • Get product marketing involved. Reverse logistics is often seen as the last part of a product lifecycle. Yet reverse logistics is largely the result of marketing and product design decisions at the beginning of the lifecycle. When marketing sees why products are being returned, it can improve product features like quality, packaging, and usability.
  • Forecast demand better. As market and buying trend data becomes more abundant and IT systems more connected, retailers can better estimate demand and adapt their ordering. Sectors like publishing of software, books, music, and so on, also offer another way to reduce returns. They increasingly make their wares digital instead of physical and sell on demand.

Reverse logistics strategy 2: make it painless
Pain is a sign that something is wrong. When something is wrong, it usually ends up costing more, either in real money or lost opportunity.

  • Make it painless for customers. Increasingly, ecommerce vendors understand the advantage of an easy-to-print, free-of-charge return shipping label for a customer to stick on a box and return by post. The cost to the vendor is compensated by increased customer satisfaction and brand loyalty.
  • Use simple, streamlined processes. Take the hurdles like who pays for the shipping out of the equation. Sort items early in the return journey, routing products directly to their correct destination, whether for resale, refurbishing, or other means of disposal. Note that this may require extra training for people who will do the sorting.
  • A barcode on a return label can be scanned, and refund, storage, disposal and other decisions taken automatically. Retailers have often been faster than manufacturers to move to the requisite technology.

Reverse logistics strategy 3: make it profitable
It makes sense to run reverse logistics as a profit centre with corresponding KPI and metrics. Speed will be an important factor. The faster a returned item moves through the system, the greater the net value that can be recovered.

  • Design reverse logistics into operations. Network analysis will be crucial for finding the best configuration of return centres, given factors like retail locations and transport facilities with backhaul possibilities. Grocery retailers have been innovators here, obliged to maximise performance from returns in the face of already slim profit margins on forward logistics. Several large 3PL now leverage their resources to offer tailored reverse logistics services.
  • Design reverse logistics into the business model. Online shoes and apparel seller Zappos has made a name for itself with its return policy extending up to 365 days. Supported by reverse logistics, this becomes a means of encouraging consumers to buy more and to recommend Zappos to others. Zappos’ focus on products of a certain type and within a certain range of weight and volume helps simplify its reverse logistics processes.

Different solutions for different needs
There is no one-size-fits-all solution for reverse logistics, even within the same industry sector. In the fashion sector for example, US department stores like Saks 5th Avenue and Nordstrom have second-tier sales outlets (off-5th and Nordstrom Rack) to which they can hand off excess inventory at marked down prices. On the other hand, a very high-end fashion company might insist that all excess inventory was returned to the factory for recycling, rather than see its brand in low budget shops.
In addition, getting it right once is no guarantee of getting it right the next time. Pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson conducted one of the most skilful product recalls ever, when it had its cyanide-adulterated Tylenol product returned from pharmacies and shops in 1982. Unfortunately, it did not exercise the same skill and transparency in recalling its Motrin product in 2009, to the extent that congressional investigators became involved to find out what was going on.
Who will do reverse logistics well in the future?

“Now is the time to stand up and be counted among those who do their reverse logistics well.”

The immediate future of logistics and distribution is omnichannel – order anywhere, buy anywhere, collect anywhere, return anywhere, including web, post, and any physical point of sale. Recent survey information from magazine DC VELOCITY suggests that supply chains are moving towards omnichannel mostly to increase sales, market share, and customer loyalty. Improving margins comes in as a distant fourth reason. Yet margins are likely to be under even more pressure because of the added complexity of omnichannel reverse logistics.
Good solutions are therefore likely to be specific to the supply chains they serve and leverage the specific configurations of those supply chains. For example, online retailer Amazon recently moved to buy physical retailer Whole Foods. For reverse logistics for this part of its business, Amazon could allow or even encourage any returns from online sales to be made in-store. This would increase the number of visitors to the physical store and decrease reverse logistics costs by batching together returns instead of transporting them one by one as small parcels.
Whatever the reverse logistics solution, it will need to be planned. Also, it might not look anything like your forward logistics. But for all the reasons above, including financial, reputational, ecological, and regulatory, now is the time to stand up and be counted among those who do their reverse logistics well.
Rob O’Byrne is a consultant, coach and author in the field of supply chain and logistics. He publishes regularly at 
This topic and many others are covered at Supply Chain Leaders Insights in Melbourne and Sydney this August. It’s a roundtable event for delegates to ask all their burning questions on supply chain. Experts from right across the industry will be running training and Q&A Sessions throughout the day. Readers can use the promo code MHD for tickets at only $47!  Visit All ticket proceeds will go to charity on the day.
“Clearly, successful reverse logistics cannot be left to luck. A plan is necessary.”
“Now is the time to stand up and be counted among those who do their reverse logistics well.”
[Pics: please use the first one and then one or both of the others as you need them.]

Spotlight on: Outsourcing transport and warehousing

Mal Walker

Over the last 20-25 years, outsourcing of logistics activities to third-party logistics service providers has become increasingly popular.
Key findings of the 2016 Third-Party Logistics Study: The State of Logistics Outsourcing (J Langley and Cap Gemini) indicate the following:

  • Although economic conditions vary significantly among countries and regions of the world, modest improvements have been experienced in many key areas. Armstrong & Associates reported aggregate global revenues for the 3PL sector growing by 9.9% from 2011 to 2012, 2.7% from 2012 to 2013, and by 6.5% from 2013 to 2014.
  • Users of 3PL services report an average of 50% of their total logistics expenditures are related to outsourcing compared to an average of 36% reported last year. This increase helps explain how improving economic conditions have impacted aggregate shipper spending on 3PL services as a percentage of total logistics expenditures.
  • This year’s Annual Third-Party Logistics Study reports that 73% of the shippers surveyed are increasing their use of outsourced logistics services, while 35% report a return to insourcing many of their logistics activities.

With an expanding sector, and increased expenditure on third-party logistics, why is that 35% are returning to insourcing? What have they discovered, or struggled with, to the extent that its driven them back to insourcing?

“Warehouses and vehicles are expensive to purchase or lease and can tie up millions of dollars that could otherwise be invested in the core business of the firm.”

In this article I will outline, firstly, the reasons why organisations outsource logistics activities, and secondly, what the key drivers are for outsourcing success.
Why do organisations outsource logistics operations?
There are many apparent motives why companies outsource, but from my experience there are four principal reasons:

  1. Warehousing and distribution management is not a ‘core’ skill.

Peters and Waterman in their best seller In Search for Excellence identify one of the eight factors of organisational success as ‘sticking to the knitting’. They warn that companies that stray from their core business risk their employees’ attention being diverted from that business to the point where they lose focus.
Many enterprises have taken heed and determined that inbound and outbound transport and warehousing are ‘consequential’ processes of their business, rather than ‘fundamental’ or ‘core’ processes. This has fuelled growth of the third-party outsourcing industry and expansion of scores of logistics service providers.
While many logistics service providers commenced as transport companies, they have diversified to engage in contract warehousing logistics, freight forwarding plus many other value adding services. On a world scale there are thousands of providers offering third-party services, yet there are only a handful of very large ones with the ability, network, systems and infrastructure needed for multinational customers. The top ten are:

Company USD Millions
DHL Supply Chain 17,748
CEVA 4,933
Kuehne + Nagel 4,047
Wincanton 3,794
CAT Logistics 3,744
Penske Logistics 3,282
UPS Supply Chain Services 2,990
FIEGE Logistik 2,684
DB Schenker Logistics 2,338
Ryder System 2,318

Source: Transport Intelligence
Choosing the right provider to use typically depends on the local and/or international scale of the customers, and alignment with the size and geographic spread of the logistic service provider.

  1. Performance is sub-optimal

Related to the ‘core skill’ issue, often organisations that have a strategic focus, other than in transport or warehousing, cannot attain the desired performance levels and key performance indicators (KPI) required by their customers. For example, companies that have their own in-house vehicle fleets often struggle to deliver products on time.
For instance, a service ratio of less than 98% of deliveries delivered on time is a major issue for modern consumers as they have become far more demanding. Merely dealing with the complexity of transport networks, contractors, inventories, industrial unions, and cost control is tough enough for many enterprises, so achieving 98% on-time performance is, for some, just a dream.
On the warehousing front, checking performance against just a few industry KPI can quickly help managers determine how effective their operations are. Telling signs are low levels of inventory accuracy, low stock turns and low order output ratios per labour hour, high levels of unexplainable losses or damage to goods, high operating costs, customer performance complaints and high employee turnover. When these signs are evident firms often choose to outsource rather than waste time developing their own remedies.

  1. Reduction in asset capital

Warehouses and vehicles are expensive to purchase or lease and can tie up millions of dollars that could otherwise be invested in the core business of the firm. Consequently, there is a trend for firms to remove warehouse assets from the balance sheet and redirect capital gained from the sale of assets to working capital and/or core asset investments. In choosing to outsource, firms can therefore transfer all the costs of distribution to their profit and loss account. This is a blessing for third-party logistics providers that have won large amounts of new business for this reason alone.

  1. Flexibility and scalability

With the advent of e-commerce, increasing globalisation and rationalisation of industries, today’s Australian market place demands fast, flexible and efficient supply chains. Coupled with shorter strategic planning horizons, the use of logistics service providers gives organisations flexibility to expand or change their method to market and volumes handled with almost immediate effect. Enterprises will typically negotiate one- to two-year agreements with Termination for Convenience exit clauses in case they wish to change their short- to medium-term strategy to market. It is simply not possible to respond quickly to market changes if there is a fully owned or leased network of warehouse and transport assets in place.

But what about cost of service?
Surprisingly cost of service, although important, is seldom a deciding factor, or driver for outsourcing decisions.
Why? Very rarely do companies save money through merely ‘outsourcing’ warehousing and transport. They may attain savings over a period e.g. 3-5 years, but not simply from the ‘act’ of outsourcing. The reason is elementary. Third-party logistics companies must pay almost the same operating costs as other organisations (sometimes more). While they do develop purchasing power and discount rates with transport sub-contractors and other vendors, there is often little disparity between the costs of a logistics service provider and would be customers. Why? The provider must add a margin to their costs to be profitable. In my experience the profit margin can range from 7-15%. This means that if a firm is seeking to bank savings after outsourcing they may well be disappointed. As a rule of thumb, companies can expect to pay from 10-20% more than current costs for outsourcing. You will recall the four reasons for outsourcing, to which cost is subservient. However, cost is a critical factor in judging the value proposition of potential providers who are quoting to do the work and in their ultimate appointment. So, to be clear, cost is not a reason to outsource, but a means to assist the decision as to whom to outsource.

“As a rule of thumb, no more than six KPI should be used. But make sure you choose the ones that are most meaningful to your business.”

What are the key drivers for success in establishing a good customer and 3PL relationship?

  1. Strategic alignment

The outsourcing decision must align with the company’s strategic direction. This is a ‘common-sense’ statement, but unfortunately not well practiced. Amazingly, many companies have suffered after outsourcing decisions were made at an operational level, without due regard to the board’s supply chain strategy.
Alas, in some cases, there is no supply chain strategy to speak of. This can cause organisational stress and is a nightmare to remedy after contracts are established. These days, third-party providers are aware that their clients may be deficient in strategy formulation, so they include clauses in contracts that enable them to change pricing and performance mechanisms if a change in company strategy or method to market occurs.

  1. Attention to detail

When seeking third-party quotations and contracts, there is no room for intuition, or best guesses on order velocities, volumes, processes and service requirements. Very detailed specifications must be prepared by enterprises with full disclosure of all available data before a quotation from service providers is attained. There is rarely too much information that you can gather. But where there is an absence of sensible interpretation of data, this can cause major issues in the outsourcing relationship.
Surprisingly, some companies agree to pricing mechanisms that are based on Customer Cost of Goods Sold, Volume Sold or Percent of Revenue. On the surface these appear to be simple pricing gauges, but often they force one party, either the customer or logistics service provider to prosper or lose unfairly. The supply chain interactions of physical movement and electronic information is complex and overly simple charging mechanisms deserve scrutiny as they can lead to disputes if one or the other party decides that they are being ripped off.

  1. Resource wisely

Both during implementation and the ongoing partnership a competent team is essential. Both the customer and the third-party logistics company must create an open and trusting working relationship. Each company’s team should include senior relationship managers from across the organisations, who meet regularly to discuss and monitor progress and performance.
Too often, once an agreement is signed implementation is left under the stewardship of the logistics service provider. This is a mistake. It must be a joint exercise. The best implementations are those that have a key member of the customer on the team to lead, organise and develop the relationship to full implementation with the provider. Such implementations are usually augmented by robust project management methods to ensure that all milestones are achieved.

  1. Raise potential issues early

From my experience, issues that are not dealt with proactively and in good time can fester into ‘relationship breakers’ and end in disaster. Therefore both parties should take a long-term perspective and be mature in their outlook and approach, always avoiding disrespectful behaviour to the other party. It never helps if one party is kicking the other. During implementation planning phases representatives from each company should meet weekly to discuss implementation tasks. Some may argue that this is too often, but in my experience the regularity maintains momentum and full attention to successful outcomes.

  1. Use KPI to manage

The contract and agreement should be subject to regular reviews of KPI. Data speaks volumes in terms of performance. For both warehousing and transport, KPI should be agreed at the outset. Typical measures include delivery in full on time, goods lost in transit, stock damage, ullage (unexplained loss or damage), inventory accuracy, time to receive goods, and time to dispatch goods.
As a rule of thumb, no more than six KPI should be used. But make sure you choose the ones that are most meaningful to your business. In this way, a focus on the ‘facts’ can help remove ‘emotionally charged’ opinions or feelings by either party.
Whether you are an organisation seeking to outsource, or a third-party logistics provider, by following these tips you will be equipped to enter into an outsourcing agreement that is ‘fertile for growth, and well placed to build into a mature and successful partnership.
In my next article I will be covering the different types of outsourcing relationships and issues to be aware of when entering contracts.
Mal Walker is manager, consulting with Logistics Bureau where he works with local and international organisations to guide them in specification preparation, establishment and review of outsourcing contracts. For more information contact Mal on 0412 271 503 or email

The four tiers of supply-chain performance

There are four tiers of supply-chain performance, Rob O’Byrne – CEO and Founder of Logistics Bureau Group – explained to Logistics & Materials Handling. “If you imagine a four-tiered pyramid, at the bottom are the blissfully unaware,” he said. “These businesses really have no idea of their performance levels and what areas are ripe for improvement.”
Next, he explained, are the ‘comfortable’ businesses. “This is a dangerous place to be, as they have no desire or pressing incentive to improve,” O’Byrne added.
Then come the ‘best-in-class’ businesses, an internationally recognised term that applies to the top 20 per cent of performers.
At the peak, he said, we see what Logistics Bureau has dubbed the ‘Two Per Cent Club’ – the two per cent of businesses in each sector that not only provide the best service, but do so at almost half the cost of the industry average.
“Naturally, there are essential things that these Two Per Cent Club businesses do, that the others don’t,” explained O’Byrne. “First, they actively leverage the supply chain to boost service and reduce costs. Second, they have a laser-like focus on the key priorities that are clearly understood and agreed across the business. And third, in terms of supply-chain performance, they know what to measure and how.”
Supply chain education is a passion for O’Byrne, and each year he provides free mini education programs to share these tools and techniques with hundreds of people.
“In our management consulting work, we see a lack of essential supply-chain knowledge on a day-to-day basis,” said O’Byrne. “Knowledge that could easily boost personal, team and overall business performance.
“Helping to fill these knowledge gaps in our broader industry is the main reason behind our free supply-chain seminar series that we’ve been providing for almost 20 years. As well as a pleasant way to catch up with colleagues and friends, and provide some good industry networking, it’s a chance to share some practical and essential tips on boosting team and business performance.
“We genuinely enjoy sharing the things that are not taught within formal programs. The kind of things that would normally take decades of experience to work out.”
Find out more about Logistics Bureau’s seminar series here.

Supply-chain education "essential" for business performance

It’s well recognised that appropriate ongoing education is essential for business success and the field of supply chain is certainly no exception, explained Rob O’Byrne, CEO and Founder of the Logistics Bureau Group. Without a working knowledge of some of the more advanced supply-chain management tools and techniques, performance really suffers, he added – and many of these tools and techniques are rarely if ever formally taught.
Every year, Logistics Bureau provides free, mini education programs to hundreds of people to help fill knowledge gaps.
“Continually seeking out new knowledge and further education has been essential to my own personal and business success,” said O’Byrne. “Without key mentors in my life I would not be where I am now, and on average, I spend at least 10 days a year attending a broad range of knowledge building programs, as well as a lot of online consumption.
“But many others don’t have the luxury of time that I have. Sadly though, that old proverb that knowledge is power has never been so true. So, we are always looking at ways of sharing knowledge.”
In his management consulting work, O’Byrne sees a lack of essential supply chain knowledge on a day-to-day basis, knowledge that he notes could easily boost personal, team and overall business performance. “We always try to fill these knowledge gaps during our client assignments as a by-product,” he said.
“Helping to fill these knowledge gaps in our broader industry is the main reason behind our free supply chain seminar series that we’ve been providing for almost 20 years. As well as a pleasant way to catch up with colleagues and friends, and provide some good industry networking, it’s a chance to share some practical and essential tips on boosting team and business performance.
“We genuinely enjoy sharing the things that are not taught within formal programs – the kind of things that would normally take decades of experience to work out.”
In early 2018, Logistics Bureau will be expanding its seminar series to enable more industry executives to attend – rather than just breakfast seminars, lunch and dinner events will also form part of the program.
“We’re not all ‘breakfast people’ so I’m looking forward to meeting many more industry colleagues as well as HR and training managers during 2018,” O’Byrne added.
Find out more:

SME supply chain and logistics focus for Dawson Consulting

Management consulting brand Dawson Consulting, acquired in 2007 by the Logistic Bureau Group, has announced that it now has a new focus – the small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector.
“Here at Logistics Bureau, we’re continually approached by the SME sector to assist them with supply chain and logistics challenges, explained Rob O’Byrne, Founder and CEO, Logistics Bureau, and previous Managing Partner with Dawson Consulting.
“But given that our primary service focus is more towards the ‘top end of town’, it was often difficult to pare back our services to be a better fit for SMEs, in terms of their specific needs around project scope, timeframe and budgets.”
For this reason, he explained, the decision was made to re-focus Dawson Consulting.
“The services under that brand are now solely focused on the needs of fast growing SMEs, a very important part of our economy,” said O’Byrne. “There are six core ‘packages’ aimed at helping SMEs with the most significant supply chain and logistics challenges that hamper their growth and profitability.
“One of the core values of the Logistics Bureau Group is helping people, and this refocus for Dawson Consulting absolutely underpins that value, allowing us to help another tier of businesses.”
Find out more on the Dawson Consulting website.

A passion for supply-chain knowledge sharing

It’s great to have a passion for your work, and Rob O’Byrne, CEO of management consultancy Logistics Bureau, certainly has that in spades – particularly in the supply-chain education area.
One way O’Byrne chooses to support the industry is through providing free education programs to the industry.
After 20 years at the helm of Logistics Bureau, O’Byrne’s passion in recent years has turned to helping others, he told Logistics & Materials Handling. His businesses, for example, all share some of their income with charitable organisations around the world and, in 2012, he established a social enterprise in the southern Philippines that provides outsourced administration services.
O’Byrne explained that his interest in promoting education has grown over the years. “I think it’s an age thing!” he said. “Once I got into my fifties, I found I was getting much more interested in helping to educate our next crop of supply chain leaders, and so I established a ‘members only’ academy to do just that, the focus being on personal development as well as technical and management topics.
“It then seemed a natural next step to bring our passion for education to a much broader audience and so we established ‘Supply Chain Leaders Insights’ in 2016. It’s a public event that brings 200 delegates together with 20 industry experts and leaders to share knowledge in a small-group coaching environment. It’s proved immensely popular.”
O’Byrne added that the event is intentionally low cost – tickets cost just $87 – and all proceeds go to charity on the day. “In this way, it feeds our other passion for helping those in need too,” said O’Byrne.
He said that for 2017, the Supply Chain Leaders Insights event will provide participant with an added, continuous-learning module. “In trying to add more value to our delegates this year, I thought it would be fun to provide them all delegates with a 12-month online education program as another useful resource and a thank you for attending,” he said. “Why not, I thought – it will really help them in their roles and careers.”
In talking to O’Byrne, the passion really shines through and it’s obvious where he gets his greatest satisfaction these days – like many Australian business leaders, it’s through giving others a helping hand.
Supply Chain Leaders Insights 2017 will be held on 17 October in Melbourne, and 19 October in Sydney. Find out more here.

The state of the industry

The Logistics Association of Australia Ltd (LAA) and leading international supply chain and logistics management consultant, Logistics Bureau, have signed a Memorandum of Agreement signalling the commencement of a definitive report on the state of the logistics and supply chain industry in Australia.

LAA President Brad Harrison spoke enthusiastically about this program.  “We are delighted that Logistics Bureau has come on board to research this report, which will provide a regular annual update on the state of the industry for all our members.”

Under the agreement, Logistics Bureau will provide research content and analysis on its research findings once a year. The first annual report will comprise an economic update and a market update; define market participants and review Australian industry performance. It is anticipated that second annual report will also include findings on employment and training and regulatory environment.

Commenting on the new Supply Chain Report, Logistics Bureau Group Managing Director Rob O’Byrne said that he welcomed the opportunity of partnering with the LAA on this initiative. 

“Undertaking to deliver this research report reflects our commitment to promoting logistics and supply chain management practices, analysis and benchmarking for the benefit of the industry,” he said.

Based in Sydney and SE Asia, consultant Logistics Bureau provides direction and support in driving improved profitability, improved customer service and increased supply chain flexibility for a wide range of businesses. Logistics Bureau is also a Friend of the LAA and has been instrumental in adding value to the industry through its strong support of a number of the LAA’ s education and research programs.

Further information: Joene Baker, Executive Manager LAA Ltd, tel:

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